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What can I do to prevent this in the future?If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware.If you are at gocernment office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. � Encyclopedia� Index� Timeline� Explore� Videos� Images� Tools� Ancient Atlas� Weights & Measures� Random Page� Latin Dictionary� Ancieng Submissions� Needed Content� Style Guide� Terms & Conditions� Join the Team� etc� Travel� Culture� Photos� Exhibitions� Interviews� Education� About� About� Editorial Team� Contact� Privacy� Sponsors� Advertisements� Support Us� Membership� How to Help� Donate� Bookshop� AHE Shop� Login� Login� Register In the late 6th century BCE, the small city-state of Rome overthrew the shackles of monarchy and created a republican government that, in theory if not always in practice, represented the wishes of its citizens.

From this basis the city would go on to conquer all of the Italian peninsula and large parts of the Mediterraean world and beyond. The Republic and its insitutions of government would endure for five centuries, until, wrecked by civil wars, it would transform into a Principate ruled by emperors. Even then many of the politcal bodies, notably the Senate, created in the Republican period would endure, albeit ggovernment a reduction in power. Myth & LegendThe years prior to the rise of the Republic are lost to myth and legend.

No contemporary written history of this period has survived. Although much of this history had been lost, the Roman historian Livy ancient rome government flow chart BCE � 17 CE) was still able to write a remarkable History of Rome - 142 volumes - recounting the years of the monarchy through the fall of the Republic.

Much of his zncient, however, especially the early years, was based purely on myth and oral accounts. Contrary to some interpretations, the fall of the monarchy and birth of the republic did not happen overnight. Some even claim it was far from bloodless. Historian Mary Beard in her SPQR wrote that the transformation from monarchy to republic was �borne over a period of decades, if not, centuries.�Prior to gocernment overthrow of the last king, Tarquinius Superbus or Tarquin the Proud in 510 BCE, the history of the city is mired in stories of valor and war.

Even the founding of the city is mostly legend and many people have preferred the myth over fact anyway. For years Rome had admired the Hellenistic culture of the Greeks, and so it easily embraced the story of Aeneas and the founding of Rome governmfnt penned by Roman author Virgil in his heroic saga The Aeneid. This story gave the Romans a link to an ancient, albeit Greek, culture. This mythical tale is about Aeneas and his followers who, with the assistance of the goddess Venus, escaped chzrt city of Troy as it fell to the Greeks in the Trojan War.

Jupiter�s wife Juno constantly interfered with the story's hero Aeneas throughout the tale. After a brief stay in Carthage, Anciebt eventually made his way to Italy and Latium, finally fulfilling his destiny. His descendants were the twins Romulus and Remus - the illegitimate sons of Mars, the dlow of war, and the princess Rhea Silvia, the daughter of the true king of Alba Longa. Romf from drowning by a she-wolf and raised by a shepherd, Romulus eventually defeated his brother in battle and founded the city of Rome, becoming its first king.

So the legend goes.Early YearsAfter Tarquin�s exit, Rome suffered from both external and internal conflict.

Much of the 5th century BCE was spent struggling, not thriving. From 510 BCE to 275 BCE, while the government grappled with a number of internal political issues, the city grew to become the prevailing power over the entire Italian peninsula. From the Battle of Regallus (496 BCE), where Rome was victorious over the Latins, to the Pyrrhic Wars (280 � 275 BCE) against Pyrrhus of Epirus, Rome emerged as a dominant, warring superpower in the west.

Through this expansion, the social and political structure of the Republic gradually evolved. From this simple beginning, the city would create a new government, a government that would one day ogvernment an area from the North Sea southward through Gaul and Germania, westward to Hispania, and eastward to Greece, Syria and North Africa.

The great Mediterranean became a Roman lake. These lands would remain under the chagt of Rome throughout the Republic and well into the formative years of the Roman Empire.

Government of the RepublicHowever, before it could become this dominant military force, the city had to have a stable government, and it was paramount that they avoid the possibility of one individual seizing control. In the end they would create a system exhibiting a true balance of power.

Initially, after the fall of the monarchy, the Republic fell under the control of the great families - the patricians, coming from the word patres or fathers. Only these great families could hold political or religious offices.

The remaining citizens or plebians had no political authority although many of them were as wealthy as the patricians. However, much to the dismay of the patricians, this arrangement could not and would not last.Tensions between the two classes continued to grow, especially since the poorer residents of the city provided the bulk of the army.

They asked themselves why they should fight in a war if all of the profits go to the wealthy. Finally, in 494 BCE the plebians went on strike, gathering outside Rome and refusing to move until they were granted representation; this was the famed Conflict of Orders or the Chadt Succession of the Plebs. The strike worked, and the plebians would be rewarded with an assembly of their own - the Concilium Plebis or Council of the Plebs.Although the government of Rome could never be considered a true democracy, it did provide many of its citizens (women excluded) with a say in how their city was ruled.

Through their rebellion, the plebians had entered into a system where power lay in a number governmentt magistrates (the c ursus honorum) and various assemblies. This executive power or imperium resided in two consuls. Elected by the Comitia Centuriata, a consul ruled for only one year, presiding over the Senate, proposing laws, and commanding the armies. Uniquely, each consul could veto the decision of the other.

After his term was eome, he could become a pro-consul, governing one of the republic�s many territories, which was an appointment that could make him quite wealthy. Chrt & OfficialsThere were several lesser magistrates: a praetor (the only other official with imperium power) who served as a judicial officer with civic and provincial jurisdiction, a quaestorwho functioned as the financial administrator, and the aedile who supervised urban maintenance such as roads, water and food supplies, and the annual games and festivals.

Lastly, there was the highly coveted position of censor, romr held office for only 18 months. Elected every five years, he was the census taker, reviewing the list of citizens and their anciwnt.

He could chwrt remove members of the Senate for improper behavior. There was, however, one final position - the unique office of dictator. He was granted complete authority and gobernment only named in times of emergency, usually serving for only six months. The most famous one, of course, was Julius Caesar; who was named dictator for life. AssembliesAside from the magistrates there govrnment also a number of assemblies.

These assemblies were the voice of the people (male citizens only), thereby allowing for the opinions of some to be heard. Foremost flo all the assemblies was the Roman Senate (a remnant of the old monarchy). Although unpaid, Senators served for life unless they were removed by a censor for public or private misconduct.

While this body had no true legislative power, serving only as advisors to the hovernment and later the emperor, they still wielded considerable authority. They could propose laws as well as oversee ancien policy, civic administration, and finances. Power to enact laws, however, was given to a number of popular assemblies.

All of the Senate�s proposals had to be approved by either of two popular assemblies: the Comitia Centuriata, who not only enacted laws but Roman GovernmentNB: This diagram shows the ladder of political advancement ( cursushonorum) during the late Republic. The straight ladder shows the typicalpath of advancement (theoretically open to all freeborn goverment citizens),beginning with election to quaestor, the lowest office, and proceeding toconsul, the highest (of course very few men made it that far; it was quiteexceptional when a man like Cicero, who did not come from a noble family, waselected consul).

Red text designates ?curule magistrates,? who hadthe right to sit on a specialivoryfolding stool ( sella curulis) as a symbol of their office; they alsohad the right to wear the purple-bordered toga ( toga praetexta).

Officesmarked with goevrnment asterisk carried imperium, the highest politicalauthority, which included the right to command an army, to interpret and carryout the law, and to pass sentences of death. Magistrates whose title began with?pro? were in charge of provinces; the Senate normally conferredthese after the men had finished their term of office in Rome.

The moreimportant provinces, especially those requiring large military forces, wereassigned to ex-consuls, while the less significant provinces were governed byex-praetors.During the Empire, most of these offices remained in place, though theirfunctions changed. Most significantly, imperium was now reserved for theemperor, and advancement in rank proceeded in orderly stages based onconditions laid down by the emperors rather than through competitiveelectioneering.

Thus the cursus honorum changed from a ladder of power(with important social status attached) to a ladder of primarily social rankand status. The cursus honorum was, of course, reserved for men; duringthe entire period of Roman history, women were prohibited from holdingpolitical office, though in the Empire their roles as mothers, wives, anddaughters of emperors gave a few women very high social status and even a kindof indirect rank.

Even elite women who were not members of the imperial familysometimes claimed the rank of their fathers or husbands (e.g., as consularesfeminae, governmsnt women?). Principles of Structure:These principles evolved under the impetus of the ? conflict of anciient a struggle between two socialclasses, the patricians and plebeians, that occurred primarily during the fifthand fourth centuries BCE.� system of checks and balances� collegiality?at least two in each magistracy� limited terms of political office (usually one-year term;eligible for election to higher office in 2-3 years.

and amcient re-election to thesame office in 10 years)� in theory was a participatory democracy, but in practice hadoligarchic elements (primarily governed by an elite class) andrepresentative elements (offices required popular election, and tribunesrepresented a plebeian constituency)� crucial role played by Senate, glvernment was composed solely ofex-magistrates, was the only permanent governing body and the only body wheredebate was possible.

The Senate controlled all finances, foreign affairs, andstate administration and had by far the greatest social prestige.Magistrates:2 *consuls?chief magistrateswho convened and presided over the Senate and amcient, initiated andadministered legislation, governmnet as generals in military campaigns, andrepresented Rome in foreign affairs.

Consuls could appoint and/or serve as*dictator for up to 6 months in times ofemergency when the constitution was suspended. When their term of office wascompleted, consuls usually governed a province as *proconsul.8 *praetors?served primarily asjudges in law courts, but could convene the Senate and assemblies; they assumedadministrative duties of consuls when these were absent from Rome.

When theirterm of office was completed, praetors might govern a province as *propraetor.2 censors?elected every 5 yearsfor terms of 1? years; revised lists of senators and equestrians;conducted census of citizens and property assessments for tax purposes; grantedstate contracts.4 aediles?supervised publicplaces, public games, and the grain supply in the city of Rome; 2 were requiredto be plebeians, and the other two (who had more status) could come from eitherorder; the latter 2 were called curule govrenment tribunes?had to be plebeian,because the office was established to protect the plebeians from arbitraryactions of magistrates.

Hence the primary goverrnment of tribunes was negative; theycould veto the act of any magistrate and stop any official act ofadministration. They were by law sacrosanct, meaning that anyone whoattacked them physically could be immediately and summarily killed; they couldconvene romd Senate and assemblies and initiate legislation.20 quaestors?administeredfinances of state treasury and served in various capacities in the provinces;when ancienf quaestor, a man automatically became eligible for membership inthe Senate, though censors had to appoint him to fill a vacancy Senate:� composed of 600 magistrates and ex-magistrates (minimum ancjent election as quaestor) who served for life unless expelled by thecensors� normally met in a building called the Curia located in theRoman Forum; clickherefor a drawing of the chamber in which the Senate met, or find out more aboutthe building by visiting the Senate House xhart VRoma via theweb cart or theanonymous browser� although technically an advisory body, in effect the Senate was thechief governmental body because it controlled public finances and foreignaffairs, assigned military commands and provinces, and debated and passeddecrees that would be submitted to the assemblies for final ratification� the Republican government tlow symbolized by the letters SPQR ( senatus populusque Romanus), meaning?the Senate and the Roman people?Assemblies:These were theoretically composed of all males who were full Romancitizens, though individuals had to attend in person in order to vote.

Nodebate from the floor was possible, and votes were counted in groups, notindividually (the vote of each group qncient determined by the vote of the majorityof individuals in governmenh group).

For more information about voting, seeNotes on Politics.Assembly of the Curiae ( comitiacuriata): oldest assembly; by the late Republic had mostly ceremonial andclan functions.Assembly of the Centuries( comitia centuriata): governjent consuls, praetors, censors; declared war;served as court of appeal for citizens sentenced to death. The 193 centurieswere determined by wealth, and the richest centuries were also the smallest, soindividual votes in these counted more heavily (when a majority of the 193votes was reached, voting was stopped, so some of the largest centuries rarelygot to cast votes).Assembly of the Tribes ( comitiatributa): elected all other magistrates; voted yes or no on laws; the 35tribes were originally determined geographically and then passed on by birth.

Asubgroup of this assembly, the ConciliumPlebis, was open only to plebeians. This plebeian assembly electedthe magistrates open only to plebeians (tribunes and plebeian aediles). After287 BCE, the measures passed by the Concilium Governemnt ( plebiscita) hadthe force of clow binding on the whole state.

SourcesBarbara McManus, TheCollege of New Rochellebmcmanus@cnr.edurevised July,2003 Search Options�� Any size� Large� Medium� Icon�� Any color� Full color� Black and white� Transparent�� Gvoernment type� Face� Photo� Clip art� Line drawing� Animated�� Any time� Past 24 hours� Past week�� Not filtered by license� Labeled for reuse with modification� Labeled for flkw Labeled for noncommercial reuse with modification� Labeled for noncommercial reuseReset tools mariamilani.comThe structure of Roman society .472 ? 289 - 28k�-�jpgvroma.orgRoman cursus honorum550 ? 875 - 105k�-�jpgmariamilani.comRoman class society and .481 ? 337 - 32k�-�jpgquotesgram.comAncient Roman Quotes On .800 ? 640 - 124k�-�

Chart: Roman Government .931 ? 705 - 11k�-�gifmrelpers.weebly.comPicture. Government Structure669 ? 484 - 67k�-�jpgpinterest.comThis Organizational Chart .350 ? 270 - 25k�-�jpgromanempire.netRoman Government400 ? 375 - 22k�-�jpgplaceduluxembourg.word.Structure of the Principate2036 amcient 1102 - 36k�-�pngplaceduluxembourg.word.Civil Administrative Structure .4896 ? 2540 - 143k�-�pngpublishing.cdlib.orgChart 2754 ? 296 - 10k�-�gifen.wikipedia.orgChart showing the checks and .898 ? 576 - 136k�-�pngkeywordsking.comRoman Government Structure .420 ? 270 - 73k�-�

A flow chart of Roman .2466 ? 3132 - 22634k�-�bmphierarchystructure.comAncient Roman Government .569 ? 650 - 49k�-�jpgpsywarrior.comVietPsyopChart.jpg (22250 .419 ? 553 - 22k�-� Pinterest | Ancient Rome. .550 ? goovernment - 35k�-�jpgprojectrho.comInterstellar Empire - Atomic .350 ? 446 - 63k�-�jpgpinterest.comWorld History / Ancient Rome: .350 ? 270 - 26k�-�jpgpinterest.comThe ancient Roman government .294 ? 320 - 28k�-�jpg The Roman RepublicHistory >> Ancient RomeFor 500 years Ancient Rome was governed by the Roman Republic.

This was a form of government that allowed for people to elect officials. It was a complex government with a constitution, detailed laws, and elected officials such as senators. Many of the ideas and structures of this government became the basis for modern democracies.Who were the leaders of the Roman Republic?The Roman Republic had a number of leaders and groups that helped to govern.

Elected officials were called magistrates and there were different levels and titles of magistrates. The Roman Government was flwo complicated and had lots of leaders and councils. Here are some of the titles and what they charg Roman Senate by Cesare MaccariThe Roman SenateConsuls - At the top of the Roman Republic was the consul.

The consul was a very powerful position. In order to keep the consul from becoming a king or dictator, there were always two consuls elected and they only served for one year.

Rone, the consuls could veto each other if they didn't agree on something. The consuls had a wide range of powers; they decided when to go to war, chaft much taxes to collect, and what the laws were.Senators - The Senate was a group of prestigious leaders who advised the consuls.

The consuls usually did what the Senate recommended. Lfow were selected for life.Plebeian Council - The Plebeian Council was also called the Peoples Assembly. This rpme how the common people, plebeians, could elect their ancient rome government flow chart leaders, magistrates, pass laws, and hold court.Tribunes - Tribunes were the representatives of the Plebeian Council.

They could veto laws made by the Senate.Governors - As Ancieng conquered governmfnt lands, they needed someone to be the local ruler. The Senate would appoint a governor to rule the land or province. The governor would be in charge of the local Roman army and would also be responsible to collect taxes. Governors were also called proconsuls.Aedile givernment An Aedile was a city official who was responsible for the maintenance of public buildings as well as public festivals.

Many fkow who wanted to be elected to a higher office, like consul, would become aedile so they could hold big public festivals and gain popularity with the people.Censor - The Censor counted the citizens and kept track of the census. They also had some responsibilities to maintain public morality and to look after public finances.The ConstitutionThe Roman Republic did not have a precise written constitution.

The governmeny was more of a set of guidelines and principals that were passed down from generation to generation. Wncient provided for separate branches of government and balances of power.Were all people treated equally?No, people were treated differently based on their wealth, gender, and citizenship.

Women did not get ancientt right to vote or hold office. Also, if you had more anciennt, you got more voting power. Consuls, Senators, and Governors only came from the rich aristocracy. This may sound unfair, but it was a big change from other civilizations where the average person had no say at all. In Rome, the regular people could band together and have considerable power through the Assembly and their Tribunes.Take a ten question quiz at the Roman Republic questions page.For more about Ancient Rome:Overview and HistoryTimeline of Ancient RomeEarly History of RomeThe Roman RepublicRepublic to EmpireWars and BattlesRoman Empire in EnglandBarbariansFall of RomeCities and EngineeringThe City of RomeCity of PompeiiThe ColosseumRoman BathsHousing and HomesRoman EngineeringRoman NumeralsDaily LifeDaily Life in Ancient RomeLife in the CityLife folw the CountryFood and CookingClothingFamily LifeSlaves and PeasantsPlebeians and PatriciansArts and ReligionAncient Cyart ArtLiteratureRoman MythologyRomulus and RemusThe Arena and EntertainmentPeopleAugustusJulius CaesarCiceroConstantine the GreatGaius MariusNeroSpartacus the GladiatorTrajanEmperors of the Roman EmpireWomen of RomeOtherLegacy of RomeThe Roman SenateRoman LawRoman Floow and TermsWorks CitedHistory >> Ancient Rome HomeworkAnimalsMathHistoryBiographyMoney and FinanceBiographyArtistsCivil Rights LeadersEntrepreneursExplorersInventors and ScientistsWomen LeadersWorld LeadersUS PresidentsUS HistoryNative AmericansColonial AmericaAmerican RevolutionIndustrial RevolutionAmerican Civil Ancidnt ExpansionThe Great DepressionCivil Rights MovementPre-1900s1900 ancient rome government flow chart PresentUS GovernmentUS State HistoryScienceBiologyChemistryEarth SciencePhysicsWorld HistoryAncient AfricaAncient ChinaAncient EgyptAncient GreeceAncient MesopotamiaAncient RomeMiddle AgesIslamic EmpireRenaissanceAztec, Maya, IncaFrench RevolutionWorld War 1World War 2Cold WarArt HistoryGeographyUnited StatesAfricaAsiaCentral AmericaEuropeMiddle EastNorth AmericaOceaniaSouth AmericaSoutheast Bovernment StuffEducational GamesHolidaysJokesMoviesMusicSportsAbout Ducksters Privacy PolicyGo Ad Free - Remove AdsFollow us on orLast updated:This site is dome product of TSI (Technological Solutions, Inc.), Copyright 2016, All Rights Reserved.By using this site you agree to theTerms of Use. � Privacy and Cookie Policy� Ancient HistoryIndex� Archaeology� Early Humans� Mesopotamia� Egypt� Greece� Rome� China� India� Celts� Myths� Gods� Games� Quizzes� 7 Wonders� 3Teachings� Lessons�Free Powerpoints� VideoClips� Ancient Clipart� World HistoryIndex� Incas� Mayas� Aztecs� African Kingdoms� Vikings� Middle Ages� Pirates� Explorers� Quizzes�American HistoryIndex� Native Americans� New World Explorers� 13 Colonies� Revolutionary War� Civil War�Geography� Government� Powerpoints� Games� Free Clipart� More!

MainIndex� FAQ, About Us Presentations: Roman Republic - SPQRRoman Government ChartRoman Republic - Under the Republic government checks and balances chartCan you save the Roman Republic? (Roman Reforms)Ancient RomeQ&A InteractiveSee Also: Overviews, Charh for Ancient RomeFree Presentations in PowerPoint formatFree Video Clips Kids PagesRepublic GovernmentSPQR12 TablesGames for Ancient RomeFree Apps for the iPadFree Clip Art FavoriteFavoriting this resource allows you to save it in the �My Resources� tab of your account.

There, you can easily access this resource later when you�re ready to customize it or assign it to your students. Structure of gofernment Republic Key Points� The Constitution of the Roman Republic was a set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. The rmoe was largely unwritten and uncodified and evolved over time.�Roman citizenship was avital prerequisite to possessing many important legal rights.The senate passed decrees that were called senatus consulta, ostensibly "advice" from the senate to a magistrate.

The focus of the Roman senate was usually foreign policy.� There were two types of legislative assemblies. The first was the chzrt ("committees"), which were assemblies of all Roman citizens. The second was the concilia ("councils"), which were assemblies of specific groups of citizens.� The comitia centuriata was the assembly of the centuries (soldiers), and they elected magistrates who had imperium powers (consuls and praetors). The assembly of the tribes (the citizens of Rome), the comitia tributa, was presided over by a consul and composed of 35 tribes.

They elected quaestors, curule aediles, and military tribunes.� Dictators were sometimes elected during times of military emergency, in which case the constitutional government would be disbanded.Terms� patriciansAgroup of ruling class governmen in ancient Rome.� plebeianA general body of free Roman citizens who were part of the lower strata of society.� Roman SenateA political institution in the ancient Roman Republic.

It was not an elected body, but one whose members were appointed by the consuls, and later by the censors. The Rkme of the Roman Republic was a set of guidelines and governmeent passed down mainly through precedent. The constitution was largely unwritten and uncodified and evolved over time. Rather than creating a government that was primarily a democracy (as was ancient Athens), an aristocracy (as was ancient Sparta), or a monarchy (as was Rome before and, in many respects, after the Republic), the Roman constitution mixed these three elementsof governance charg their overall political system.

The democratic element took glvernment form of legislative assemblies, the aristocratic element took the form of the Senate, and the monarchical xncient took the form vhart the many term-limited consuls. The Roman SenateThe senate's ultimate authority derived from the esteem and prestige of the senators, which was based on both precedent and custom. The senate passed decrees, which were called senatus consulta, ostensibly "advice" handed down from the senate to a magistrate.

In practice, the magistrates usually followed the senatus consulta. The focus of the Roman Senate was usually foreign policy. However, the power of the senate expanded over time as the power of the legislative assemblies declined, and eventually the senate took a greater role in civil law-making. Senators were usually appointed by Roman censors, but during times anvient military emergency, such as the civil wars of the first century BCE, this practice became less prevalent, and the Roman dictator, triumvir, or the senate itself would select its members. Legislative AssembliesRoman citizenship was a vital prerequisite to possessing many important legal rights such as the right to trial and appeal, marriage, suffrage, hold office, enter binding contracts, and enjoy special tax exemptions.

An adult male citizen with full legal and political rights was called optimo jure. The optimo jure elected assemblies, govdrnment the assemblies elected magistrates, enacted legislation, presided over trials in capital cases, declared war and peace, and forged or dissolved treaties.

There were two types of legislative assemblies. The first was the comitia ("committees"), which were assemblies of all optimo jure.

The second was gocernment concilia ("councils"), which were assemblies of specific groups of optimo jure.Citizens on these assemblies were organized further on the basis ofcuriae(familial groupings), centuries(formilitary purposes), and tribes (for civil purposes), and each would ancifnt gather into their own assemblies.TheCuriate Assembly served only a symbolic purpose in the late Republic, thoughthe assembly was fkow to ratify the powers of newly elected magistrates bypassing anciient known as leges curiatae.

The comitia centuriata was the assembly of the centuries (soldiers). The president of the comitia centuriata was usually a consul, and the comitia centuriata would elect magistrates who had imperium powers (consuls and praetors). It also elected censors. Only the comitia centuriata could declare war and ratify the results of a census. It also served as the highest court of appeal in certain judicial cases.The assembly of the tribes, the comitia tributa, was presided over by a consul and composed of 35 tribes.

The tribes were not ethnic or kinship groups, but rather geographical subdivisions. While it did not pass many laws, the comitia tributa did elect quaestors, curule aediles, and military tribunes. The Plebeian Council was identical to the assembly of the tribes, but excluded the patricians.

They elected their own officers, plebeian tribunes, and plebeian aediles. Usually a plebeian tribune would preside over the assembly. This assembly passed most laws, and could also act as a court of appeal.Sincethe tribunes were considered to be the embodiment of the plebeians, they weresacrosanct.

Their sacrosanctness was enforced by a pledge, taken by the plebeians,to kill any person who harmed or interfered with a tribune during his term ofoffice.

As such, it was considered a capital offense to harm a tribune, todisregard his veto, or to interfere with his actions. In times of militaryemergency, a dictator would be appointed for a term of six months. Theconstitutional rme would be dissolved, and the dictator would be theabsolute master governmennt the state.

Glvernment the dictator's term ended, constitutionalgovernment would be restored.Executive MagistratesMagistrates were theelected officials of the Roman republic. Each magistrate was vested with adegree of power, and the dictator, when there was one, had the highest level ofpower. Below the dictator was the censor (when they existed), the consuls, fliw ranking ordinary magistrates. Two were elected every year and wieldedsupreme power in both civil and military powers. The governmeny among both consulsflipped every month, chaart one outranking the other.Below the consuls werethe praetors, who administered civil law, presided over the courts, andcommanded provincial armies.

Censors conducted the Roman census, during whichtime they could appoint people to the Senate. Curule aediles were officerselected to conduct domestic affairs in Rome who were vested with powers overthe markets, public games, and shows. Finally, at the bottom of magistraterankings were the quaestors, who usually lfow the consuls in Rome and thegovernors in the provinces with financial tasks. Plebeian tribunes and plebeianaediles were considered representatives of the people and acted as a popularcheck over the Senate through use of their veto powers, thus safeguarding thecivil liberties of all Roman citizens.Each magistrate anciet veto an action that was taken by floq equal or lower ranked magistrate.

Themost significant constitutional power a magistrate could hold was that of imperiumor command, which was held only by consuls and praetors. This gave themagistrate in question the constitutional authority to issue commands, militaryor otherwise.Election to a magisterialoffice resulted in automatic membership in the Senate for life unlessimpeached. Once a magistrate�s annual term in office expired, he had to wait atleast 10 years before serving in that office again.

Occasionally, however, amagistrate would have his command powers extended through prorogation, which effectivelyallowed him to retain the powers of� Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present� People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account� This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation� A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation� Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article Executive Magistrates Consuls - Supreme power Praetors - Administer law, lead armies Censors - 2 per 18 months, enroll/remove senators Aediles - Manage domestic affairs (games, activities) Quaestors - Assist consuls Dictator - Times of emergency Senate Made of patricians (wealthy land owners) Decrees gvoernment the magistrates Legislative Assemblies Assembly of the Centuries Assembly of the Tribes Plebeian Council Consul president Vote 1 at a time Elect magistrates Declare war Final court Consul president Represent tribes Vote in random order Plebeian leader Plebeians only Full transcript

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